# Action-at-a-distance as an article of faith

To come full circle…it seems to me that to accept gravity as real you also have to accept “action-at-a-distance”(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Action_at_a_distance).  It is obvious that action-at-a-distance (other than to the most ardent believers) is a tenuous concept that has zero empirical evidence (http://www.newappsblog.com/2012/07/newtonian-gravity-as-as-action-at-a-distance-you-know-a-sympathetic-process.html) and instead relies upon metaphysical arguments and conjecture.

To claim that any object orbits due to the gravitational attraction of bodies is speculating and is attributing special, hidden and unverifiable qualities to matter.  In essence, gravity cannot be proven since it can’t be shown to not exist.  For example, I can solve the buoyancy of a balloon without the need to include gravity.  Volume, differences in density and temperature will give an exact value for lift.  However, someone could simply argue that since gravity is inherent within all objects (“the conspiring nature”), you don’t need to include it; therefore, I can give gravity any arbitrary value and the results will match (ie. the total amount of lift will be the same).  Try it yourself – just solve a buoyancy equation but give gravity a value of 1 or ignore it altogether.  If you think about it, how is terminal velocity, buoyancy and density any different than acceleration due to gravity (ignoring action-at-a-distance)?

In fact, all equations that have a gravity function can be removed without altering the real outcome.  However, the only equations which will not work are objects in orbit that require action-at-a-distance.  An orbiting body like the ISS requires a continuous change in direction.  The change in direction involves a net zero force.  So just like the schwarzschild radius can divide by zero (https://www.thunderbolts.info/thunderblogs/archives/guests08/061108_sjcrothers.htm) a change in direction requiring zero force requires a complete suspension of disbelief (https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/3be0zs/how_are_orbiting_objects_not_accelerating_due_to/).   Honestly, how can something act on an external body with zero force?  It doesn’t matter if you qualify it as a *net zero force* or not.  The result is zero…meaning no force.  This was the greatest achievement of Newton – to separate the relationship between force and motion.  But can anyone really claim that this has any reality?  To do that, you *have* to believe in action-at-a-distance *and* that a change in direction is possible *without* force.  Other than orbiting bodies (which in themselves are not verifiable), is there any empirical evidence of this?

Many have convinced themselves of the validity of such an action because the implications are too devastating to consider – What if gravity is a false premise?  But it’s impossible to prove a negative.  One would then have to start questioning and challenging the supposed authorities on these matters.  Most of science can still move ahead by removing gravity from their equations.  However, one particular science cannot.  I will let you guess which one that is.  What would happen if an orbiting body is impossible?  What does that say about the information that we are presented with everyday?

What if you started testing and thinking with your own eyes and mind?  Ideas that were previously blocked from consideration might become viable.  But this requires a person to recognize that they believe something as a matter of faith and not because it is self-evident or a testable hypothesis.  We are all subject to articles of faith (even atheists).  If a person doesn’t think that they are subject to those articles then woe to them.  And to argue that the presence of the moon is proof of gravity merely reinforces the idea of that article of faith.  The moon and its motions are not fully understood and anyone claiming they do understand it are being intellectually dishonest at best or deliberately misleading at worst.

# The Impossible Flight of the ISS

I was looking at some additional sites from NASA that try to explain the nature of gravity at certain altitudes.  https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/K-12/airplane/wteq.html

The final sentence of the explanation is “…But the high orbital speed, tangent to the surface of the earth, causes the fall towards the surface to be exactly matched by the curvature of the earth away from the shuttle. In essence, the shuttle is constantly falling all around the earth.”

As mentioned in my previous posts, the centripetal force only makes sense for something that is tethered to the spinning body  (If you feel that the centripetal force *does* have special powers, please provide a clear empirical example that can be tested). Neither the space shuttle nor the ISS are tethered to the earth unless we grant the centripetal magical grappling abilities (see hammer throw). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KnHUAc20WEU

As well, for the shuttle to be constantly “falling” but not actually falling downwards, a constant acceleration would need to be applied (ie. rockets) plus a continual adjustment of direction or the shuttle would fly off into space (see what happens when the hammer is released).  Again, for apparent “weightlessness” in space, it would require objects to be falling at a rate of 9.8N/kg (or m/s/s) which would mean a constant counter-force of equal value would need to be applied or they would rapidly fall to earth.  So the “floating” objects and people in space would need to be in a free fall all the time.  This is obviously not the case since the ISS would have crashed to earth a long time ago.  In essence the ISS is just like a airplane at a higher altitude and would require constant thrust to stay in “orbit”.  If you turn off the engines of an airplane at 30,000 feet will it stay in “orbit” because “…the high orbital speed, tangent to the surface of the earth, causes the fall towards the surface to be exactly matched by the curvature of the earth away from the [airplane]? ”  I don’t think any scientist would want to be in that airplane at 30,000 feet.   It should be noted that the standard equation for centrifugal force for any object at the equator great than ~317kg would have a centrifugal force greater than gravity.  Unless the centripetal force is magically grappling those objects, they should all start floating and since objects like elephants weigh ~4000-7000kg, they should all be floating thousands of miles above the earth.

If we grant the ISS a value of 3217N/kg (centrifugal force) due to its orbit around the earth (@ 17,150 miles/h & 4200 miles & ~331,000kg) – what force was initially used to get it to that speed?), then an equivalent (but opposite direction) for it must be present via the centripetal force.  In order for a centripetal force to be present the object must be tethered to the earth.  However, to obtain 3217N/kg, this would require the object to be traveling at a faster rate than the earth’s rate of spin.  So an object that travels faster than the earth’s rate of spin *must* be under its own propulsion and not tethered to the earth.  Since the ISS is traveling at such a high rate of speed and is not tethered to the earth, then it *must* be under its own propulsion and heading.  This is plainly not the case.  If the centripetal and centrifugal forces are equal but opposite directions, then we are left with 9.8N/kg (the force of gravity) on all objects.

In conclusion, if the centripetal force only applies to objects that are tethered to a spinning object (ie. Earth) then objects above the earth’s surface must be constantly under their own propulsion (like an airplane) to stay above the earth’s surface.  In other words, the ISS should be falling out of the sky.